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alpha-GPC, aka alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, is a naturally occurring alkaloid and a prodrug for choline. It is a metabolic intermediate in the biological production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, as well as phosphatidylcholine (which is a phospholipid used by the body in the creation of cellular membranes). It is produced naturally in the human body from choline itself. Alpha-GPC is a bioavailable prodrug and can elevate endogenous levels of choline. Each mole of alpha-GPC metabolizes into equimolar ratios of choline, phosphate, and glycerol.

Despite being an essential nutrient for neurotransmitter function and brain health, the average North American diet is often lacking in choline. According to research conducted by Dr. Steve Zeisel (M.D., Harvard; PhD, M.I.T), 90% of Americans are choline deficient, and their diet is below the average intake of choline that is considered a daily requirement [1]. Specifically, “a recent analysis of data from NHANES 2003–2004 revealed that for [American] older children, men, women and pregnant women, mean choline intakes are far below the AI. Ten percent or fewer had usual choline intakes at or above the AI [average intake].” Other research indicates that this deficiency level is as high as 98% for American postmenopasusal women, although the sample size for this study was small (n = 22) [2]. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) has listed choline as an essential nutrient as of 1998 [1].

Numerous placebo controlled, human clinical trials demonstrate alpha-GPC to be effective in alleviating symptoms of cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer’s disease, cerebral ischemia, vascular dementia, and stroke [3]. Choline (as well as its prodrugs) can reduce the risk of neural tube defects in pregnant women [4] [5], and low-choline diets are associated with pre-eclampsia, premature birth, and low birth weight [1]. In healthy subjects, alpha-GPC (supplemented alongside caffeine) has been shown to improve test scores and reaction times during acute stress [6].

This compound is NOT meant for human consumption whatsoever. Our product is not meant for nutritional supplementation, in vivo or veterinary research, and is provided either for in vitro research or as an analytical/reagent standard ONLY. The research provided above is not meant to endorse consumption of our product, but for educational purposes. Our product is alpha-GPC compounded with 50% silicon dioxide by mass. Only 50% of our product’s weight is in alpha-GPC.

[1] – Zeisel SH; da Costa KA (November 2009). “Choline: an essential nutrient for public health”. Nutrition Reviews. 67 (11): 615–23. Web.

[2] – Fischer, L. M., K.-A. Da Costa, L. Kwock, J. Galanko, and S. H. Zeisel. “Dietary choline requirements of women: effects of estrogen and genetic variation.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 92.5 (2010): 1113-119. Web.

[3] – Parnetti, Lucilla, Francesco Amenta, and Virgilio Gallai. “Choline alphoscerate in cognitive decline and in acute cerebrovascular disease: an analysis of published clinical data.” Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 122.16 (2001): 2041-055. Web.

[4] – Shaw, G. M., S. L. Carmichael, W. Yang, S. Selvin, and D. M. Schaffer. “Periconceptional Dietary Intake of Choline and Betaine and Neural Tube Defects in Offspring.” American Journal of Epidemiology 160.2 (2004): 102-09. Web.

[5] – Rees W, Wilson F, Maloney C. Sulfur amino acid metabolism in pregnancy: the impact of methionine in the maternal diet. J Nutr. 136 (2006): 1701S–1705S. Web.

[6] – Hoffman, Jay R., Nicholas A. Ratamess, Adam Gonzalez, Noah A. Beller, Mattan W. Hoffman, Mark Olson, Martin Purpura, and Ralf Jäger. “The effects of acute and prolonged CRAM supplementation on reaction time and subjective measures of focus and alertness in healthy college students.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 7.1 (2010): 39. Web.